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X-ray Diffraction SEF

The X-Ray Diffraction SEF contains an diverse suite of diffractometers to analyze polycrystalline, single crystal, thin film, polymer, and nanostructured samples. A wide variety of software is also available in the data analysis lab. For more information on how to access the X-ray Diffraction SEF and detailed descriptions the instrumentation please visit our website at http://prism.mit.edu/xray/index.html.
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Instruments

  1. BACK REFLECTION LAUE DIFFRACTOMETER

    This system uses a two-dimensional multiwire detector to collect back-reflection Laue patterns to determine the orientation of large single crystals and thin film single crystal substrates.

  2. Bede Triple Axis Diffractometer

    This instrument uses a high precision Bede D3 goniometer combined with a powerful rotating anode generator and several beam-condition analyzer crystals for high precision GIXD analyses of thin films and semiconductors. Typically used to measure the perfection or imperfection of the crystal lattice in thin films (i.e. rocking curves), the misalignment between film and substrate in epitaxial films, and reciprocal space mapping. This diffractometer could also be used, theoretically, for high precision XRR.

  3. BRUKER D8 GADDS MULTIPURPOSE DIFFRACTOMETER

    The Bruker General Area Detector Diffraction System (GADDS) instrument permits simultaneous collection of diffraction data over a 2theta range as large as 30 degrees and a chi (tilt) range as large as 30 degrees. Combines a Eulerian cradle, which permits many unique tilts and rotations of the sample, with a very fast two-dimensional area detector. This configuration makes this instrument ideal for texture and stress measurements, as well as traditional XRPD and limited SCD and GIXD. A selectable collimator, which conditions the X-ray beam to a spot with a size from 0.5mm to 0.05mm diameter, combined with a motorized x-y stage permits micro-diffraction for multiple select areas of a sample or mapping across a sample's surface. Samples can include thin films on wafers or dense pieces up to 6" in diameter (maximum thickness of 3 mm), powders in top-loaded sample holders or in capillaries, dense pieces up to 60mm x 50mm x 15mm (and maybe even larger). In addition, the GADDS system can collect basic WAXS, SAXS, and GISAXS data by configuring the instrument with a collimator-mounted or detector-mounted beam stop and a helium purged flight tube to reduce air scatter.

  4. BRUKER D8 HIGH RESOLUTION DIFFRACTOMETER

    Uses a conventional 1.6kW sealed tube copper anode, and the X-rays are reflected off a Gobble mirror to produce a parallel beam. This instrument features a four-bounce Ge (022) incident beam monochromator. This optic produces highly monochromatic X-rays, eliminating all incident wavelengths except Cu Kα1 (λ=1.540562 Å). The goniometer is a chi-cradle type, with full phi axis rotation and x-y-z translation. Including omega, this gives six positioning axes for the sample (not including the detector axis, 2Theta). Two detectors are mounted on this instrument: a point detector, which offers higher resolution at the cost of speed, and a faster but lower-resolution linear position-sensitive detector. Popular applications include HRXRD, reciprocal space maps (RSM), and XRR.

  5. Bruker D8 Multipurpose Diffractometer

    Permits simultaneous collection of diffraction data over a 2theta range as large as 30 degrees and a chi (tilt) range as large as 30 degrees. Combines a Eulerian cradle, which permits many unique tilts and rotations of the sample, with a very fast two-dimensional area detector. This configuration makes this instrument ideal for texture and stress measurements, as well as traditional XRPD and limited SCD and GIXD.

  6. Bruker Single Crystal Diffractometer

    The Bruker General Area Detector Diffraction System (GADDS) instrument permits simultaneous collection of diffraction data over a 2theta range as large as 30 degrees and a chi (tilt) range as large as 30 degrees. Combines a Eulerian cradle, which permits many unique tilts and rotations of the sample, with a very fast two-dimensional area detector. This configuration makes this instrument ideal for texture and stress measurements, as well as traditional XRPD and limited SCD and GIXD.

  7. Bruker Small Angle Diffractometer

    Used for SAXS, this diffractometer combines a high-power rotating anode with a two-dimensional detector and a long X-ray beam path to measure X-rays that are only slightly scattered away from the incident beam. The two-dimensional detector allows entire Debye rings to be collected and observed in real time. The current beam path length of 60.4 cm allows the resolution of crystallographic and structural features on a length scale from 1.8nm to 40nm (1.8nm is near the maximum resolvable length scale for XRPD in our other systems). A heater is available to heat the sample up to 200C.

  8. BRUKER TRACER-III SD PORTABLE XRF UNIT

    This energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) unit provides rapid qualitative non-destructive elemental analysis. It features a rhodium X-ray source and a silicon-based detector and is capable of identifying most elements heavier than magnesium in three minutes or less with a spectrum from 1-40 keV. Normally it gives qualitative results, e.g. trace element identification and relative comparisons of similar samples. Quantitative analysis is possible but more difficult, because the user must create a set of calibration standards for each element of interest.

  9. Horiba Jobin Yvon, ICP-AES

    This is a CCD-based Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The spectrometer offer the ease-of-use that every analyst wishes. The full wavelength coverage, from 160 to 800 nm, leads to optimum selectivity with potential use of all ICP lines for samples containing multiple elements.

  10. PANALYTICAL MULTIPURPOSE DIFFRACTOMETER

    This diffractometer can be used to collect XRPD, GIXD, XRR, and residual stress data. Some texture analysis is also possible. Sample sizes may be as large as 60mm diameter by 3-12mm thick, though a more typical sample size is 10-20mm diameter. Data collection modes can be changed between high-speed high-resolution divergent beam diffraction and parallel beam diffraction. There are several accessories for this instrument, including an X'Celerator position sensitive detector, a furnace for in-situ high temperature measurements, a cryostat for in-situ low temperature measurements, a diffracted beam monochromator, and a 15-position automatic sample changer.

  11. PANalytical Multipurpose Diffractometer

    This diffractometer can be used to collect XRPD, GIXD, XRR, and residual stress data. Some texture analysis is also possible. Sample sizes may be as large as 60mm diameter by 3-12mm thick, though a more typical sample size is 10-20mm diameter. Data collection modes can be changed between high-speed high-resolution divergent beam diffraction and parallel beam diffraction.

  12. Quantum Design Inc. Magnetic Property Measurement Systems (MPMS-5S)

    This apparatus is capable of measuring magnetic moments in the range +/-2 emu to a resolution of 10-7 emu. Measurements may be obtained in the temperature range 1.8 to 800 K with magnetic fields from -5 Tesla to +5 Tesla. The system is fully automated, accepting flexible user-programmed parameters that allow for unattended operation day and night.

  13. Quantum Design Inc. Magnetic Property Measurement Systems (MPMS-XL)

    This apparatus is capable of measuring magnetic moments in the range +/-2 emu to a resolution of 10-7 emu. Measurements may be obtained in the temperature range 1.8 to 400 K with magnetic fields from -7 Tesla to +7 Tesla. The system is fully automated, accepting flexible user-programmed parameters that allow for unattended operation day and night.

  14. Quantum Design Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS VSM)

    This apparatus is capable of measuring magnetic moments in the range +/-2 emu to a resolution of 10-7 emu. Measurements may be obtained in the temperature range 1.8 to 1000 K with magnetic fields from -7 Tesla to +7 Tesla. The system is fully automated, accepting flexible user-programmed parameters that allow for unattended operation day and night.

  15. RIGAKU H3R SOURCE/BRUKER NANOSTAR SAXS SYSTEM

    This hybrid instrument is composed of a Bruker NanoStar system for Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) on top of a Rigaku H3R rotating anode generator. It features a two-dimensional CCD detector and a long X-ray beam path to measure X-rays that are only slightly scattered away from the incident beam as well as entire Debye rings. The current beam path length of 60.4 cm allows the resolution of crystallographic and structural features on a length scale from 1.8nm to 40nm.

  16. Rigaku Powder Diffractometers

    Fast, precision XRPD is facilitated by a high-powered rotating anode generator that supplies a high flux of X-rays to two different horizontal-circle powder diffractometers: 185mm Bragg-Brentano diffractometer is optimized for high intensity for fast data collection; 250mm Bragg-Brentano diffractometer is optimized for high resolution at slightly slower data collection speeds. Sample size is generally 20mm x 10mm x 0.3mm, though we have a variety of sample holders and mounting procedures to accommodate varied sample geometries.

  17. RIGAKU RU-300 POWDER DIFFRACTOMETER

    The RU-300 features an 18kW X-ray source along with a diffracted beam monochromator for rapid, high-quality data collection from polycrystalline samples. Current configuration is a chromium anode, which is useful for reducing unwanted fluorescence from samples containing iron and cobalt. Samples must be mounted vertically and this instrument is configured for Bragg-Brentano parafocusing geometry.

  18. RIGAKU SMARTLAB MULTIPURPOSE DIFFRACTOMETER

    This diffractometer features a 9kW rotating anode X-ray source, which produces a much higher intensity beam than sealed tube anodes. It is capable of performing most common XRD measurements as well as many uncommon ones, and can rapidly switch between various optical configurations including both Bragg-Brentano and Parallel-Beam geometries. It is suited for XRPD, XRR, GIXD, HRXRD, reciprocal space maps (RSMs), in-plane pole figures, and in-plane grazing incidence XRD scans.