The Wisconsin MRSEC has developed a versatile synchrotron-radiation instrument enabling the use of hard x-ray nanobeam and coherent scattering techniques to study nanoscale phenomena in the formation, crystallization, and transformation of nanoscale volumes of materials in carefully controlled environments. The instrument is specifically designed to permit the use of close-working-distance x-ray optics using either Fresnel zone plates (for experiments with photon energies from 5 to 12 keV) or compound refractive lenses (from 12 to approximately 25 keV). The sample is positioned with high stability and with precise translations to allow scattering experiments from nanoscale features. The vacuum sample environment includes sample heating and multiple sources for radiofrequency magnetron deposition and vacuum evaporation. The gas environment can be controlled in composition and pressure ranges applicable for the oxidation or reduction of metal oxides.