Three ovens, one each designated for wet oxidation, dry oxidation, and diffusion. Each of the three 1200 °C ovens has a programmable controller. The ovens are used for various thermal processes including wet oxidation, dry oxidation, annealing, dopant drive-in, and diffusion. A gas-handling manifold equipped with electronic mass flow controllers is used to deliver alone or in combination O2, N2, and Ar. A hot plate and aquarium pump can be used to deliver deionized water vapor for wet oxidation.